Background: Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) is associated with coronary microvascular dysfunction, which is thought to contribute to compromised diastolic function, ultimately culminating in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). The molecular mechanisms remain incompletely understood, and no early diagnostics are available. We sought to gain insight into biomarkers and potential mechanisms of microvascular dysfunction in obese mice (db/db) and lean rats (Goto-Kakizaki) pre-clinical models of T2D-associated diastolic dysfunction.
Methods: The microRNA (miRNA) content of circulating Extracellular Vesicles (EVs) was assessed in T2D models to identify biomarkers of coronary microvascular dysfunction/rarefaction. The potential source of circulating EV-encapsulated miRNAs was determined, and the mechanisms of induction and the function of candidate miRNAs were assessed in Endothelial Cells (ECs).
Results: We found an increase in miR-30d-5p and miR-30e-5p in circulating EVs that coincided with indices of coronary microvascular EC dysfunction (i.e., markers of oxidative stress, DNA damage/senescence) and rarefaction, and preceded echocardiographic evidence of diastolic dysfunction.
These miRNAs may serve as biomarkers of coronary microvascular dysfunction as they are upregulated in ECs of the left ventricle of the heart, but not other organs, in db/db mice. Furthermore, the miR-30 family is secreted in EVs from senescent ECs in culture, and ECs with senescent-like characteristics are present in the db/db heart.
Assessment of miR-30 target pathways revealed a network of genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis and metabolism. Over-expression of miR-30e in cultured ECs increased fatty acid β-oxidation and the production of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation while inhibiting the miR-30 family decreased fatty acid β-oxidation. Additionally, miR-30e over-expression synergized with fatty acid exposure to down-regulate the expression of eNOS, a key regulator of microvascular and cardiomyocyte function. Finally, the knock-down of the miR-30 family in db/db mice decreased markers of oxidative stress and DNA damage/senescence in the microvascular endothelium.
Conclusion: MiR-30d/e represents early biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets that are indicative of the development of diastolic dysfunction and may reflect altered EC fatty acid metabolism and microvascular dysfunction in the diabetic heart.
Published on: Feb 18, 2023 Pages: 1-5
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